Videojournalism: Multimedia Storytelling

Videojournalism: Multimedia Storytelling

Videojournalism: Multimedia Storytelling

Ken Kobre’s groundbreaking new textbook teaches students and professionals how to shoot, edit and produce high-quality videojournalism stories. (Focal Press)

Table of Contents: 

Chapter 1: Telling Stories, by Regina McCombs
Chapter 2: Finding and Evaluating a Story, by Josh Meltzer
Chapter 3: Successful Story Topics, by Josh Meltzer
Chapter 4: Producing a Story, by Josh Meltzer
Chapter 5: Camera Basics, by Ken Kobre
Chapter 6: Camera Exposure and Handling, by Ken Kobre
Chapter 7: Light and Color, by Ken Kobre
Chapter 8: Recording Sound, by Ken Kobre
Chapter 9: Combining Audio and Stills, by Ken Kobre
Chapter 10: Shooting a Sequence, by Ken Kobre
Chapter 11: Conducting an Interview, by Jerry Lazar
Chapter 12: Writing a Script, by Stanley Heist
Chapter 13: Editing the Story, by Kathy Kieliszewski
Chapter 14: Ethics, by Donald R. Winslow
Chapter 15: The Law, by David Weintraub
Chapter 16: Marketing a Story, by Mary Thorsby

Chapter 1: Telling Stories, by Regina McCombs

Page 2

Train Jumping: A Desperate Journey

Photo by Gary Coronado/Palm Beach Post

The photographer rode the rails and the reporter provided a voice-over for this harrowing tale of immigrants trying to reach the “promised land.”

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Page 4

The Reach of the War

Michael Kamber, New York Times

The photographer gives a firsthand report of the patrol in Iraq that he went on and that ended in tragedy. Three soldiers were wounded. One died. The photographer’s images and narrative turn this incident into a gripping story.

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Page 4

Reality TV Versus Real Story

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Page 7

Hungry: Living with Prader-Willi Syndrome

Steve Kelley and Maisie Crow, Howard County Times

The story shows not only the disease but also reveals how that disease has affected the father’son relationship.

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Page 8

Kingsley’s Crossing

Photography & Video: Olivier Jobard/Sipa Press
Graphics: Jody Sugrue & Vincent Diga
Producers: Brian Storm and Eric Maierson

Kingsley, a 23-year-old Cameroonian, ponders migrating to Europe, where he hopes to have better job prospects and an improved quality of life.

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Page 9

’Hungry: Living with Prader-Willi Syndrome

Steve Kelley and Maisie Crow, Howard County Times

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Page 9

Kingsley’s Crossing

Photography & Video: Olivier Jobard/Sipa Press
Graphics: Jody Sugrue & Vincent Diga
Producers: Brian Storm and Eric Maierson

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Page 11

Collin Rocks

Boyd Huppert and Jonathan Malat, KARE, Minneapolis

Collin, the main character in this short video, has a personality that helps to bring the story to life.

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Page 11

Phan Pllork

Sachi Cunningham, Los Angeles Times

Phan Plork is the central character in a story that humanizes the impact of the British Petroleum oil spill off the Louisiana coast.

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Page 12

Denied

Photo by Ed Kashi

In ’Denied,’ the photographer and videographer tell the story of health care through the experiences of one woman who had to ask for help on the road side to pay her medical bills.

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Page 12

The Turtle Man

Photo by David Stephenson/Lexington Herald Leader

Ernie Brown, Jr., pulled two snapping turtles from a Lincoln County farm pond near Stanford, Kentucky. Though catching snapping turtles is a unique occupation, Brown’s personality is what gives the piece its character.

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Page 13

The Unsettled Legacy of MOVE

Video by Sarah J. Glover, Laurence Kesterson, and Frank Wiese;
Video editing by Frank Wiese, Laurence Kesterson, and Hai Do

In 1985, Philadelphia police descended on a city row house in an attempt to clear the building. The building was home to a strange back-to-nature liberation group known as MOVE. Unable to clear residents from the building using tear gas, the police department made the decision to drop a military-grade explosive bomb on the house, which resulted in 11 deaths (including 5 children) and the destruction of 65 homes in the resulting fires. Telling the story through multiple points of view based on a wide array of interviews, the producers looked at the effect of the bombing that took place in Philadelphia.

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Page 14

Residents in both towns are crazy about football

Produced by Jay Janner, narrated by Kevin Robbins, Austin American-Statesman

Residents in both towns are crazy about football and once a year the neighboring teams play each other in a heated rivalry that began 86 years ago. The game is about as important as graduation, one player says. ’All that matters is how you play on this night.’

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Page 14

NBC’s Jane Pauley interviews Robert Rudolph

By Latisha R. Gray

NBC’s Jane Pauley interviews Robert Rudolph, 53, who always wanted to be involved in church music.

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Page 15

Johnnie Footman: New York City’s 90-Year-Old Cabbie

Photography and video Jan Johannessen and Charlotte Oestervang; audio Scott Anger and Charlotte Oestervang; editing Scott Anger and Megan Lange; produced by Scott Anger and Megan Lange/MediaStorm

At 90, Johnnie Footman is probably the oldest cabbie driver in New York City. Footman’s quirky personality, captured as he spouts his opinions on his customers, women and his past, provide the story’s point of view.

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Page 15

A Portrait of Coney Island

Travis Fox, The Washington Post

In ’Portrait of Coney Island,’ the birthplace of the roller coaster and the American hot dog, Travis Fox takes a slice-of-life approach to document some of the distinctive aspects of this fading amusement park. A commercial real estate developer has amassed much of Coney Island’s six-block-long amusement area and is planning a $1.5 billion redesign of the area into an upscale techno theme park with retail space, high-rise timeshare towers and hotels.

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Page 17

Tethered to Tradition

Produced by Eileen Blass

Brad Lowe feeds his chickens and turkeys on his family’s farm, Hillyard Field Organics in Murray, Kentucky.

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Chapter 2: Finding and Evaluating a Story, by Josh Meltzer

Page 18

Vigil for Teen Crash Victim

Photo by Colin Mulvany, Spokesman-Review

A videojournalist has to stay current. The day after a Cheney High School student died in a two-vehicle collision, mourners gathered for a candlelight vigil near the scene of the accident. There was something about the short news brief on his paper’s website that caught the producer’s eye.

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Page 20

Train Jumping

Photo by Gary Coronado/Palm Beach Post

From a newspaper story, the producer learned about the trend of Central American migrants hopping trains to reach the United States.

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Page 21

ICU: Los Angeles Connections

What is I C U Every day, tiny stories spring up from the Southern California maze of freeways and neighborhoods and into the “missed connections” section of Craigslist.

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Page 21

ICU: Nice Guy I Hit with My Car.

Produced by Katy Newton

Katy Newton found her subjects by searching the Missed Connections section of Craigslist.

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Page 22

Craigslist, Classified Ads, and Social Media

Aside from Craigslist, make sure to check out blogs and websites on any and all topics you can think of. At this writing, there are over a 125 million blogs, 500 million Facebook users, and 255 million websites on the Internet.

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Page 22

Craigslist, Classified Ads, and Social Media

Often you can even check facts for your story with a web search. Or you might be able to find contacts and potential subjects to interview that way.

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Page 22

A Team Without a Home

Scott Strazzante, Chicago Tribune

Scott Strazzante’s path to find this story of a soccer team consisting of homeless players is a great example of finding for stories by keeping your ears, eyes, and’most important’your mind open.

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Page 23

Age of Uncertainty

Photo by Josh Meltzer, Roanoke Times

Sylvia Coleman lifts a cup of wine to help Hattie Brown take communion. The photographer suggested a feature story on this woman who assists her fellow church members. But a colleague encouraged him to think more broadly about what this lady did’caring for elderly people in general.

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Page 24

Cross the Tracks

The Roanoke Times

How well are we taking care of the elderly already here?

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Page 24

A Locksmith’s Tale and Other Health Care Stories

Robert Krulwich and Will Hoffman, NPR Online

To tell the complicated story of health care for NPR Online, Krulwich and Hoffman zeroed in on the personal tales of a few individuals.

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Page 25

For Their Own Good

Ben Montgomery, Waveney Ann Moore, and photographer Edmund Fountain/St. Petersburg Times

A story about the past will require creative visuals because documenting the story with video is often no longer possible. Portraits, landscapes, and still-life photography as well as other creative visual approaches will help to cover a strong audio story.

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Page 26

A Thousand Little Cuts

The first nonviolent protest on Coal River Mountain brought attention to the campaign to build a wind farm. Five protesters, including Rory McIlmoil, left, and Matt Noerpel, chain themselves to an excavator on a mountaintop removal preparation site. Chad Stevens, the photographer, has been working on the project for more than seven years.

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Page 29

StoryCorps

StoryCorps is an independent nonprofit organization whose mission is to provide Americans of all backgrounds and beliefs with the opportunity to record, share, and preserve the stories of our lives.

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Page 29

This American Life

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Page 29

Radiolab

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Page 29

Run Granny Run

Film by Marlo Poras

Doris Haddock, in her mid-90s, a true character, explains her motivations to run for U.S. senator of Vermont.

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Page 30

Ian Fisher: American Soldier

Photos by Craig Walker, The Denver Post

Ian Fisher cradles his injured elbow during processing into the Army at Fort Benning, Georgia. Though he later has a change of heart, he sees a possibility only two days after arriving, to escape enlistment. From his first day in fatigues through his days driving a Humvee in Iraq, military life often doesn’t mesh with his expectations. Sometimes the structure of the Army and the demands of training for war clashes with the freedom he shared with his outside friends.

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Page 32

Ivory Wars: Last Stand in Zakouma

Photos by Michael Nichols

A story with narrative tension about poaching.

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Page 34

Choosing Thomas

Photos by Sonya Hebert, Dallas Morning News

Deidrea Laux sits on her bathroom floor holding Thomas before making a plaster mold of his hands and bathing and dressing him for the last time. ’I got to feel what it’s like to be a mom. It was good, Thomas. Thank you. I needed you,’ Deidrea said to her baby. The videojournalist was able to capture this very intimate moment in a couple’s life.

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Page 34

Torn Apart

Dai Sugano, San Jose Mercury News

Immigrant parents and American-born children face the possibility of parent’s deportation. This story took the videographer a year to complete. He explained the photographic process to the family before he started so they would accept him over the course of the saga.

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Page 35

Take Care

Photography and video by Gillian Laub, MediaStorm

The producer was first attracted by Virginia Gandee’s brilliant red hair and dozen tattoos’but then went deeper. Inside Gandee’s family’s Staten Island trailer, she cares for her grandfather.

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Page 36

Neverland: A Short Film.

Photography by Yanina Manolova

Patricia, 27, smokes crack in Mansfield, Ohio. She graduated from the Rural Women’s Recovery Program in the spring of 2009 but relapsed in June of that year. Sexually abused at age 14 by a middle-aged man, her father’s best friend, she has been using alcohol and drugs (marijuana, crack, cocaine, oxycodone, and morphine) since. ’I got pregnant with my daughter by a drug dealer, and I went for treatment for about nine months while I was pregnant. He is in prison and has never seen his child,’ Patricia reveals.

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Page 38

Hammoudi

Directed by Anwar Saab, produced by Tima Khalil

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Page 38

Sudoku Master

Produced by Jacob Templin

Templin zeroed in just two players to tell the story of the Sudoku contest.

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Page 39

The Real Dirt on Farmer John

Produced by Taggart Siegel

The documentary took several decades to create.

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Chapter 3: Successful Story Topics, by Josh Meltzer

Page 40

Alvin Stamper

Photo by David Stephenson/ZUMA Press

Alvin Stamper, 26, defends his title as the tobacco cutting champion at the Garrard County Tobacco Cutting Competition. Contests make good topics for multimedia and videos because they have a natural story arc built in.

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Page 42

Daniel Edgington

Photo by David Stephenson/ZUMA Press

Daniel Edgington, left, and Alvin Stamper rest after a grueling hour of competition.

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Page 43

Prove Yourself

Produced by Ben Severance and Bethany Mollenkof, The Herald

Members of Pi Kappa Alpha cheer on their fraternity brothers at the annual Sigma Chi Battle of the Greeks boxing event.

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Page 44

Breaking the Chains of Addiction

Photo by Rick Loomis, Los Angeles Times

Beit T’Shuvah, a mid-city Los Angeles synagogue and rehab center catering to a mostly Jewish clientele, leans on spirituality and the Torah to heal addiction. The clients include heroin junkies, alcoholics, sex addicts, and gamblers.

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Page 45

At the Edge of Life

Sonya Hebert, Dallas Morning News

Miles Hoffman tenderly embraces his wife, Christina Hoffman, at Baylor University Medical Center in Dallas. Christina Hoffman has Huntington’s disease. The Baylor palliative care team is helping Miles find solutions to meeting Christina’s needs as the end of her life draws near. Miles continues to struggle with the knowledge that he is no longer able to take care of her.

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Page 45

Second Chance

Photo by Chang Lee, New York Times

Terry Cummings prepares to go to work in Montclair, New Jersey, before sex reassignment surgery.

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Page 46

Baby Feras

Produced by Casey Kaufman, Al Jazeera International

A hospital with facilities to treat Baby Feras’ heart condition was only an hour’s drive away from his parent’s home in Gaza, but it might as well have been across an ocean. His families requests for treatment were turned down’only an ’emergency’ qualified. Unfortunately, the child’s condition deteriorated so rapidly that it became an ’emergency.’ His paperwork arrived too late to save him.

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Page 46

Carrier of the Economy

Produced by Brian Kaufman, Detroit Free Press

The story tells the problems of the economy through the changing trends in mail delivery.

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Page 47

Mourners Gather

Photos by Will Yurman/Democrat and Chronicle

Mourners gather at a candlelight vigil for homicide victim Korey Ellis.

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Page 48

Cheerleader Eric Finch

Producer, Josh Meltzer, Roanoke Times

Cheerleader Eric Finch (left) gets some help adjusting his rolled-up socks in a bra from teammate Jacob Andrews (right) at Andrews’s home before heading off to lead cheers for the annual powderpuff football game.

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Page 49

Dooty Diva

Photos by Kyle Green/Roanoke Times

Katie Halsted has created a business called ’The Dooty Diva.’ Job description? ’Professional pooper scooper.’ Katie’s business involves traveling to customers’ homes and removing, well, dog poop. In the photo, Katie walks with her own three dogs. It is stories like Katie’s where inherent humor grabs and holds the attention of an audience, shocking them with witty lines and satirical comments.

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Page 49

Stefanie Rinza: The Animal Rescuer

Photography by Todd Heisler, New York Times

One in 8 Million tells the stories of New York characters in sound and images. Stefanie Rinza is one of those characters.

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Chapter 4: Producing a Story, by Josh Meltzer

Page 50

Keeping Track

Photo by Josh Meltzer

As they are shooting a story, some videojournalists make notes to remind themselves of shots they need to complete a story arc.

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Page 53

Boil it Down

Scott Rensberger

Scott Rensberger , a freelance TV journalist who has traveled the globe and is a faculty member at the National Press Photographers Association storytelling workshop, follows such advice and boils his story idea down to a simple phrase.

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Page 53

Uprooted

Photo by Dai Sugano

Its owners were closing down and selling the Flicks Mobile Home Park. The photographer went from door to door to find subjects.

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Page 55

On Thinner Ice

Bob Sacha, Asia Center on U.S.-China Relations & MediaStorm

Bob Sacha calls on climatologist Lonnie Thompson as an expert scientist for his story about melting glaciers and global warming. Sacha understands that much of his audience is nonscientific; Thompson must speak in plain English so that his message will come across to a broad audience of laypeople.

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Page 56

Audience Attention Span

Source: Tubemogul, a video analytics platform for research.

The average drop-off rate in audience attention span presents a constant challenge for the videojournalists.

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Page 57

Streetwise

Producer, Martin Bell. Courtesy of Angelika Film

To grab viewers’ attention, the producer opened his documentary on street kids in Seattle with a teenager jumping from a bridge with shocking dialog.

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Page 57

Labor of Love

Produced by Katie Falkenberg

The producer selected a funny line of dialog to start a story about how a couple began their mobile pet-grooming business.

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Page 57

The Suicide Tourist

Produced by John Zaritsky, Frontline

To seize the viewer, the producer opens this documentary with Craig Ewert saying he is taking a trip to commit suicide.

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Page 58

Dail: Life Unbarred

Footage: Shawn Rocco, Travis Long, interviews: Mandy Locke, stills: Shawn Rocco, editing: Travis Long, Shawn Rocco

Accused of rape, Dwayne Dail lost half his life to prison before DNA evidence found on the victim’s nightgown proved his innocence. In the video, Dail tells his own story.

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Page 58

One Man Band: The Naked Cowboy

Photos by Lucy Nicholson/ Reuters

When the photographer discovered that the Naked Cowboy had a girlfriend, they realized they could give the story a new twist by telling it from two points of view.

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Page 59

Intended Consequences

Story by Jonathan Torgovnik; produced by Chad Stevens, MediaStorm

The story of Rwandan women who had been raped by men of a different tribe ends with a montage of images of the mothers and of their children. The video closes on a hopeful note with the last child going from a serious face to a smile.

*****

Page 60

Motel Manor Suburban Homelessness

Photo by Robert Cohen, St. Louis Post-Dispatch

The intersection of Interstate 70 and Highway 40, dubbed the ’crossroads of the nation,’ is also where suburbia meets a national problem. Two motels here have become home to St. Charles County’s chronically struggling, homeless, fragile families. Two-year-old Drew Trantham plays in puddles in the parking lot, his playground, outside the Budget Inn in Wentzville. His parents, Cherri and Joe Trantham and sister Mary, age 1, moved into the hotel after losing their trailer to foreclosure.

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Chapter 5: Camera Basics, by Ken Kobre

Page 68

Finding a Camera that Fits You

A few suggested sites to research camera choices: CNet.com

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Page 68

Finding a Camera that Fits You

A few suggested sites to research camera choices: VideoMaker.com

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Page 68

Finding a Camera that Fits You

A few suggested sites to research camera choices: CamcorderInfo.com

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Page 68

Finding a Camera that Fits You

A few suggested sites to research camera choices: DPReview.com

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Page 78

Telephoto Lenses Bring Action Closer

Photos By Ken Kobre

See a side-by-side demo of a camera’s optical stabilization/vibration reduction feature

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Chapter 6: Camera Exposure and Handling, by Ken Kobre

Page 84

Dealing with Darkness

Learn more about shutter speed and stroboscopic effect.

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Page 85

Use a tripod

Photo by Ken Kobre

To eliminate camera shake, use a tripod whenever possible

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Chapter 7: Light and Color, by Ken Kobre

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Chapter 8: Recording Sound, by Ken Kobre

Page 104

Sound is Vital to Understanding

’If you close your eyes while watching a news program like 60 Minutes, you will find that you can absorb the story with no problem. The images enhance the story, but it is the sound that is vital to understanding,’ says Dirck Halstead, a digital video pioneer whose workshops train photojournalists transitioning from still to video storytelling and whose website, DigitalJournalist.org, provides a wealth of information for multimedia and video producers.

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Page 104

Sound of the Environment

Julie Jacobson, Associated Press

Coney Island’s Cyclone turned 80 years old this year.

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Page 105

Sound of the Environment

Steve Rhodes, WTHR-TV, Indianapolis, Indiana

Geoff Keller is known as the premier recording artist of birdsongs in North America. He often prowls the wilds of Brown County, Indiana, toting a parabolic sound dish that he compares to the lens of a camera. Keller has been collecting bird sounds for 30 years

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Page 105

The Lifeline

Photo by Rick Loomis, Los Angeles Times

Here the reader hears a nurse make a call for an injured soldier who cannot speak.

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Page 106

Cloistered for Christ

Kate Lord, Andrea Ballocchi and Nick Vidinsky, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill

Twenty-three nuns live a cloistered life behind the walls of Santa Catalina Monastery in the heart of Arequipa, Peru. Listen for how the producers used natural sound to start this video.

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Page 107

Your Smart Phone

In a pinch, it can record audio. Some phones even accept external mics.

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Page 107

Other Recording Options

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Page 109

Recording Sound with a Hybrid Camera

Another solution for recording sound with a hybrid camera is to use a high-quality handheld recorder as the go-between.

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Chapter 9: Combining Audio and Stills, by Ken Kobre

Page 116

Last Roll of Kodachrome

Photo by Robert Cohen, St. Louis Post Dispatch

In this video, photographer Robert Cohen narrates and describes how he dug a final roll of expired Kodachrome 200 out of the back of his freezer, carefully and lovingly shot 36 frames at the Missouri State Fair, and then drove the film hundreds of miles to Kansas to have it developed before the only remaining laboratory closed forever.

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Page 119

Black Market

Photo by Patrick Brown

The multimedia story ’Black Market,’ about illegal trade in animal parts, was originally shot as still images for a book. Inside Scotland Yard’s animal protection unit, an officer displays a tiger’s head seized during a raid in London.

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Page 120

From the Wreckage

Kathy Kieliszewski, executive producer, Detroit Free Press

In this multimedia story about Detroit’s car industry, the producer used both still images and video.

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Page 122

The Lifeline

Rick Loomis, photographer, Los Angeles Times

Having followed a severely wounded soldier home from Iraq, the videojournalist ended the piece by showing the young man’s resumption of life, albeit a new one without legs.

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Page 122

Iraqi Kurdistan

By Ed Kashi

Fire rapidly using the ’continuous’ camera setting to capture a sustained series of images as your subject jumps, runs, walks, or talks. A series of quick shots, sometimes referred to as a flip-book or animated technique, can help simulate the illusion of real motion in your multimedia piece. When shot and played back fast enough, the resulting images can approach the natural movement captured by a video camera. Photojournalist Ed Kashi employed the technique to dramatic advantage in showing life in ’Iraqi Kurdistan’

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Page 124

Playing Italy’s Finest Violins

Photos by Dave Yoder, New York Times

A pure audio report with only natural sound is rare but possible. Shooting for the New York Times, David Yoder photographed a story called ’Playing Italy’s Finest Violins.’ The piece showcases a master violinist who plays historic instruments to keep them in shape. The only sound for the entire piece is the music played by the violinist. Produced by Joshua Brustein, the report also included captions and an accompanying written article by reporter Ian Fisher.

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Page 125

Train Jumping: A Desperate Journey

Photo by Gary Coronado, Palm Beach Post

The photos and story document the attempts of Central American immigrants to jump a train to the United States to find jobs. The writer provided the voice-over.

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Page 125

Image Pacing

Photo by Gary Coronado, Palm Beach Post

When viewing Gary Coronado’s ’Train Jumpers’ online, watch for the effective pacing of images during a series in which a young man races for a rapidly passing train and misses.

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Page 125

The Reach of War: A Deadly Search for Missing Soldiers

Photos and story by Michael Kamber, New York Times

The photographer not only shot the pictures but also wrote and recorded his own voice-over narrative.

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Page 126

Waiting to Die

Photo by Liz O. Baylen, Los Angeles Times

A transitional photo of these two chairs implies that two people used to sit and talk.

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Page 127

Ambush and a Comrade Lost

Photos by Tyler Hicks, produced by Nancy Donaldson, New York Times

U.S. troops along with Afghan National Army soldiers use night vision goggles to move in the dark to seek information about the death of their fellow soldier Pfc. Richard A Dewater.

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Page 127

Soundslides: Easy Editing Software

Check the Web for reviews of various sound editing software packages.

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Page 127

Soundslides: Easy Editing Software

Soundslides is software used to combine audio with still images.

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Page 127

Soundslides: Easy Editing Software

For those who use a PC, Microsoft’s Photo Story 3 is a free alternative to Soundslides. Photo Story 3 allows smoothly combining images and sound.

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Page 127

Soundslides: Easy Editing Software

You also might want to check out some of WordPress’s slide show plug-ins. They come in all flavors and work seamlessly if your website uses WordPress.

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Page 130

Use flash sparingly. Bounce the light if possible

Photo by Sherri LeAnn

An external flash can be pointed to the ceiling or wall to redirect, broaden, and soften the light. If you’re using the camera’s pop-up flash, consider instead sliding on the Lightscoop®, a mirrored device that will redirect and bounce light from the camera’s pop-up flash.

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Chapter 10: Shooting a Sequence, by Ken Kobre

Page 138

The Language of Film

The Close-up (CU) should be significantly tighter than the MCU, typically including the collar, but not much of the shoulders. The emphasis here should be on the facial expression, not on body movement. Because the CU is all about the subject’s face, it encapsulates their identify, which is why it’s the perfect shot to answer who.

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Page 139

The Lord’s Resistance Army Hunts Children in Sudan

Videojournalist: Ed Robbins;
Supervising producer: Craig Duff

This Time magazine video presents Moses’ oral account of the events punctuated by his own childish line drawings ’ a device that allows the viewer to witness the cruelties he describes from a more intimate perspective. The stark pencil sketches, highlighted with red for blood, have a chilling effect.

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Page 143

The Boys of Christ Child

Lead Photographer: Kathleen Galligan; Videographer and Producer: Brian Kaufman; Photographers: Regina Boone, Brian Kaufman, Romain Blanquart, Detroit Free Press

An orphanage setting gave the videojournalists who worked on this story ample opportunity to shoot candid pictures.

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Page 146

Colliding Footage

By Ken Kobré

Note how the cutaway of the horse’s head provides a visual buffer between the shots of the carts. The horse’s headshot neutralizes the conflicting screen directions of the two cart shots. For more detail on the 180-degree rule, see the KobreGuide.

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Page 150

Tip

By Ken Kobré

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Page 152

Camera Stabilizers for Better Handheld shooting

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Page 153

How to edit a sequence

By Ken Kobré

See the KobreGuide for a video on how to shoot and edit a sequence.

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Chapter 11:Conducting an Interview, by Jerry Lazar

Page 156

Heroin Addict Finds Hope

Video by Djamila Grossman, Standard-Examiner

The story’s producer focused on an addict to convey a more realistic vision of problems of going straight.

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Page 156

Pathology of Errors

Produced by Stephanie Saul and Shayla Harris, New York Times

Besides interviewing the central subject, the producers of this video interviewed doctors on both sides of a controversy over whether the patient really needed to have a breast operation for cancer.

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Page 157

Battle of the Blondes

Produced by Mel Melcon, Los Angles Times

This multimedia piece presents a synchronized sparring match between two Marilyn impersonators— one live, one a wax model—who spend their days on Hollywood Boulevard. Melissa Weiss has played Marilyn Monroe on Hollywood Boulevard for the past nine years. Interviews with Weiss and a PR representative for Madame Tussaud’s provide the contrasting narration.

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Page 158

Extreme Couponers Get Groceries for (almost) Free

Video Journalist Jacob Templin, Supervising Producer: Craig Duff

Treasure Philips, in a story about clipping coupons for supermarket discounts, tells her tale, but the listener never hears the original interview questions that stimulated the answers.

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Page 160

Tainted Meat

Produced by Gabe Johnson and Michael Moss, New York Times

The New York Times reporters used the case of Stephanie Smith, who was brain damaged because of meat she had eaten, to tell the story of lax food regulations.

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Page 160

Pullman Porter and Family Patriarch

Produced by Mel Melcon, Los Angeles Times

Mel Melcon of the Los Angeles Times interviewed and photographed Lee Wesley Gibson, who turned 100 in July 2010 and worked for the Union Pacific Railroad for 38 years. The LA Times staffer interviewed the centenarian in a quiet place with little distracting noise but took pictures of Gibson in a number of locations, including an old Union Pacific railroad car, the subject’s house, and at a funeral.

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Page 162

Tami Tushie’s Toys

Produced by Melody Gilbert, Kiersten Chace, Adrian Danciu and Emily Rumsey

Just as their mothers may have done, women still give parties in their homes to sell merchandise to friends and neighbors. These days, plastic containers or candles aren’t the only things being sold. Tami Tushie is a working hostess of “Pure Romance” parties, where she hawks sex aids—lotions, potions, and toys designed to perk up a woman’s sex life. Notice how the story answers the who, what, where, when, and why questions readers have.

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Page 163

Popular Science

Produced by David Frank and Natalie Angier, New York Times

David Frank and Natalie Angier put the forensic science teacher and his students at ease during an interview for a story about what maggots reveal about decomposing bodies—and the popularity of this new high school science topic.

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Page 168

Deadline Every Second: On Assignment with 12 Associated Press Photojournalists

Photo by Ken Kobré

By putting a tiny wireless lavalier mic on the subject, the videographer was able to interview the photographer during his assignment.

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Page 168

Reginette’s Story

Photo by Bill Greene, Boston Globe

Bill Greene of the Boston Globe shot from a low angle and used a wide aperture on his lens to blur the background for his story about a 13-year-old girl who lost her leg in the Haiti earthquake.

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Page 170

Watch the direction of the eyes

Photo by Ken Kobré

For the primary interview for the documentary, the videographer stood just to the left of the camera in order to keep the subject’s eye line even with the lens.

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Deadline Every Second

Produced by Ken Kobré and John Hewitt

The videographer on camera interviewed AP photojournalist Oded Balilty as he related the situation that was unfolding the day he shot a Pulitzer Prize-winning image.

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Chapter 12: Writing a Script, by Stanley Heist

Page 175

The Lord’s Resistance Army Hunts Children in Sudan

Produced by Ed Robbins, Time

Fifteen-year-old Moses and two other children were abducted in the night from a farm village and subjected to gruesome atrocities by lawless members of a rebel group who regularly seize and enslave boys from rural areas in southern Sudan. The voice-over helps to explain the story.

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Log those shots

FilmContracts.net

Script supervisor continuity log

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Chapter 13: Editing the Story, by Kathy Kieliszewski

Page 188

Your Video Editing Software

Ken Kobre

Because there are so many different video editing programs available, it is impossible to provide a step-by-step guide to building and editing your story in every software option. Instead, we identify some key concepts you’ll come across in most programs. At the KobreGuide, you will find links to a variety of training resources.

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Online Training- Final Cut Pro

John S. and James L. Knight Foundation

Final Cut Pro is a sophisticated video editing program made by Apple. It is the editing software of choice for multimedia journalists using Apple computers, and is comparable to Adobe’s Premiere video editing program. Final Cut Pro does not make a version for Windows.

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Online Training- Digital Video Editing Class

Digital Mentor Training

Digital Video Editing I Editing film and video is about choreography, movement, the play of light, light, color, and graphics. In this 6-lesson class, you’ll learn about video editing from two award-winning filmmakers. The class explores the many techniques that can be applied in non-linear editing programs, such as Avid, Premiere, and Final Cut. But the main focus is not just on developing software skills—it’s on tapping into the magic behind video editing and building a portfolio of editing work. Class projects include editing a commercial, an interview, a narrative scene, a music video, a video diary, and a text title sequence.

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Online Training-Learning the Basics of Video Editing : Essentials for Beginners

eduslide

The non-linear version of video editing using computers and video editing software is different from the type of video editing that involves using actual video tape. That sort of editing is known as linear editing. Video editing, however, is in all its forms a way of arranging visual elements on video into a more perfect assembly during production. By removing unwanted or unnecessary footage and piecing together the parts in a more thoughtful way, a film or movie even a home movie can become a much more enjoyable piece of entertainment. In the realm of home video and memory preservation, a carefully edited home movie can make your child’s baseball game or birthday party a project that yields generous results: a home movie worth watching again and again, impressive to friends, family and neighbors!

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Online Training- Apple Final Cut Pro X

Apple Final Cut Pro X

A new timeline, and dynamic media organization that takes the work out of finding clips.

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Online Training- Final Cut Pro Tutorials – Learn to Edit Video With Final Cut Pro

About.com

These tutorials will help you learn how to use Final Cut Pro video editing software.

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Online Courses

Lynda.com

Online software training videos that really work, for a flat monthly fee.

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Storyboarding

Celtx.com

At some point, you may be collaborating with other journalists, producers, or editors with whom you’ll want to share these storyboards. Digital storyboarding programs, including a free one called Celtx, are particularly useful for collaborating.

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Setting Up Your Project

Ken Kobre

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Labeling Your Clips

Ken Kobre

Some programs will automatically analyze downloaded video files. These scan the material and create tags such as: camera data, shot type, and whether the shot contains one person, two people, or a group. These tags can be used to sort, filter, and search the clips. You can also assign your own keywords to the clips.

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Statue of announcer Ernie Harwell

Kathy Kieliszewski, executive producer and video editor, and Mandi Wright, lead videographer, Detroit Free Press

Statue of announcer Ernie Harwell with his microphone in Detroit.

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Page 193

Working with music

Music can be created and recorded by the editor/producer. It’s also possible to pay royalties to use certain music. Another source for music is easily downloaded, royalty-free tunes that are in the public domain. Check Creative Commons for copyright use guidelines.

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Page 193

William and the Windmill

Randy Risling and Lucas Oleniuk, Toronto Star

This Toronto Star video tells the inspiring success story of a poor African boy who comes to be a local—and international— hero. The music helps to carry the story.

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Page 197

Bowler Exceeds Expectations

Sequencing was key in the story about Kolan, a developmentally disabled bowler who has rolled many, many perfect games. As Kolan took his turn with the ball over and over again, the videojournalist photographed different shots that were edited to convey one roll of the ball.

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Belle Isle Revealed

Detroit Free Press

Movies often start with a wide shot of the location, such as this one of Belle Isle.

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Pacing (Chapter 9-Waiting to Die)

Photo by Liz O. Baylen, Los Angeles Times

Think about what is being said in a story, how it is being said, what is being seen while it is said. Try to match the pacing to reflect that. The pace of the Los Angeles Times story “Waiting to Die” (see Chapter 9, “Combining Audio and Stills”), is very slow, like that of the subject’s labored breathing and halting speech cadence. The photos are quiet and reflective. If he were a fast talker or being rushed to the emergency room instead of talking very calmly about his visit to the emergency room, the slow pace would not match what is being seen and heard.

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Page 198

Pacing

By Ira Glass

Ira Glass refers to pacing in a Minnesota Public Radio’s broadcast journalists’ lecture series at Macalester College in St. Paul as the “45-Second Rule”—include an anecdote and then reflection for 45 seconds, followed by another anecdote and reflection for 45 seconds and so on. (You can see an edited version of Ira Glass’s transcript online at current.org).

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Page 200

Rising from the Wreckage

Executive Producer & Video Project Leader: Kathy Kieliszewski; Video editor and producer: Brian Kaufman; Lead Videographers: Romain Blanquart, Brian Kaufman ; Videographers: Alexandra Bahou, Eric Seals, Marcin Szczepanski, Mandi Wright; Video Narrator: Mike Brookbank; Lead Script Writers: Brian Kaufman, Kathy Kieliszewski; Script Writers: Nancy Andrews, Mike Brookbank, Ron Dzwonkowski, Jim Finkelstein

Credits were extensive for the five-part documentary on the rise, fall and reinvention of the auto industry. They included acknowledging everyone from executive producer to scriptwriter.

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Page 200

Forty Years of Respect

Nancy Andrews, online and video executive producer, and Mandi Wright, video and audio, Detroit Free Press

The video producers were required to include in the credits that they had permission to use the song “Respect.”

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Page 201

Giving Credit

CreativeCommons.org

As an alternative to “All Rights Reserved,” you can share your video with others and allow them to put it on their website, re-edit it, or use part of it for a their own creative project. Creative Commons licenses off er a way to preserve your original copyright while sharing your work more widely .

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Marwencol

Produced by Jeff Malmberg

“Don’t overstay your welcome and don’t answer everything,” says producer Jeff Malmberg. “An audience with questions is what I want.”

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Chapter 14: Ethics, by Donald R. Winslow

Page 204

NPPA code of Ethics

The National Press Photographers Association, a professional society that promotes the highest standards in visual journalism, acknowledges concern for every person’s need both to be fully informed about public events and to be recognized as part of the world in which we live.

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The Radio Television Digital News Association (RTDNA)

RTDNA is a professional organization exclusively serving the electronic news profession, and consisting of more than 3,000 news directors, news associates, educators and students.

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The National Press Photographers Association

The National Press Photographers Association is an organization consisting of still photographers, TV photographers, and videojournalists.

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The Society of Professional Journalists

The Society of Professional Journalists includes among its members professional writers, producers, photojournalists, videographers, and videojournalists.

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National Union of Journalists Code of Ethics

CAPTION

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Demotix: News by You

Web bloggers and citizen journalists could follow a similar prescribed code of conduct if they decide to adopt such standards. Cyberjournalism.net has developed a code for citizen journalists. The code is a good road map, but the difference between the blogger and the professional working for a salary from an outlet such as a newspaper, broadcast network, or online publication is that the professional have editors and managers to supervise and enforce ethical standards. Freelancers, solo videojournalists, and independent web bloggers are, by definition, “self-regulating.”

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Associated Press

The Associated Press “Standards and Practices” statement lays out clearly the rules of the road for videojournalists working for the world’s largest news-gathering agency.

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Too Big to Fail

Directed and Produced by Curtis Hanson, HBO

This docudrama was based on real events. Don’t confuse docudramas that use actors with videojournalism, which records and presents the “real thing.”

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Chapter 15:The Law, by David Weintraub

Page 218

Metro Station

Photo by Carlos Miller

Police and security guards often try to ban cameras even when videojournalist have the right to shoot. A security guard warned that “it was against the law to take pictures in the parking lot of the Douglas Road Metro Station in Miami,” reported Carlos Miller, from the website Pixiq. A security guard, however, has no authority to ban you from public property without a court order.

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Page 218

Outside Hospital

Videographer Doug Laughlin, KGO-TV

Outside Hospital. KGO-TV videographer Doug Laughlin was outside Highland Hospital in Oakland, California, when he was shoved away from the hospital and threatened with arrest, despite the fact that he was on a public street filming a newsworthy event.

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Page 218

Authority and control

Videographer Doug Laughlin, KGO-TV

“The public has a right to be informed and for its journalists to report the news,” said Charles Bourdon, one of Laughlin’s attorneys. “Mr. Laughlin was doing his job to present a newsworthy event to the public and was not at any time interfering with the legitimate actions of the police.” Watch the confrontation and judge for yourself. What would you have done as a videographer? As a member of the police whose comrades had been killed?

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What Do Privacy Laws Protect?

Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press

Privacy law has four main branches: intrusion,revelation of private facts, placing someone in a false light, and misappropriation of a person’s name or likeness. You can fun afoul of privacy laws whether you are a still photographer or videojournalist. However, not every state recognizes all four branches of privacy law. Additionally, some states have enacted statutes regarding privacy to supplement the laws already recognized. The best guide to privacy law is the Photographers’ Guide to Privacy, an online publication of the Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press. The guide contains a primer on invasion of privacy, a state-by-state guide to case law, and nine ways to avoid invasion of privacy lawsuits.

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Page 231

Employee or Independent Contractor?

IRS

If you are an independent contractor, which is the status most freelance creative professionals fall under, you own the copyright to all your work—even if your client pays all your expenses or provides you with equipment. The only exception is if you sign a “work for hire” agreement, giving up your copyright. The distinction between employee and independent contractoris crucial in determining who owns the copyright. A great resource for learning more about employment status can be found on the Internal Revenue Service website.

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Page 232

Copyright Registration

Copyright.gov

Copyright registration involves filling out some simple paperwork, depositing a copy of your work with the U.S. Copyright Office, and paying a small fee. There are several ways to register, including online registration. You can register multiple unpublished works at that same time for a single fee. Although not necessary to secure a copyright in your work, registration has several advantages, including establishing a public record of your copyright. The most important advantage, however, involves what happens if your copyright is infringed, meaning someone has used your work without your permission, and you wind up in court.

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Page 232

Creative Commons License

CreativeCommons.org

The Creative Commons copyright license gives you a way to share your work inside the traditional “all rights reserved” standard that copyright law creates. The Creative Commons tools give everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. There is a vast and growing digital commons, a pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law. Check it out.

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Page 233

Copyright Infringement

Photo by Mannie Garcia for the AP; design by Shepard Fairey

Designed by Shepard Fairey,a Los Angeles–based street artist, this image has become so much in demand that copies signed by Fairey have been purchased for thousands of dollars on eBay. Only when confronted with a lawsuit did the artist acknowledge that he had used an AP photograph as the basis for the poster.

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Page 235

No first amendment privilege

The U.S. Supreme Court in Branzburg v. Hayes (1972) refused to recognize a First Amendment privilege for journalists that would release them from the requirement—shared by all other citizens—to answer subpoenas and testify in court. The Court did add that Congress could enact a federal shield law—as narrow or as broad as necessary—to protect journalists from having to disclose the identity of sources or to testify when subpoenaed. However, efforts to pass such a law have repeatedly failed so far. Many states have shield laws of one form or another to protect journalists. For a state-by-state rundown of journalist shield laws, visit the Citizen Media Law Project.

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Page 235

Crude: The Real Price of Oil

Joe Berlinger, producer

Images from documentary filmmaker Joe Berlinger’s video. In July 2010, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit ruled that Berlinger must turn over those parts of the unused footage that might help Chevron, the oil company featured in the video, fight its cases.

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Chapter 16: Marketing a Story, by Mary Thorsby

Page 236

Waiting Topless

Produced by Briget Ganske

Yes, sex sells. A popular video about a café with topless waitresses resulted in increased traffic to the website for Salt Institute for Documentary Studies. The story went viral.

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Page 238

A Breach of Faith in Haiti

Photographed by Shaul Schwarz, Time.com

In the harrowing days after the Haiti earthquake, documentary makers Shaul Schwarz and Julie Platner witnessed families mourning loved ones and youths whose injuries meant tragic choices of life over limb. They sold the story to Time.com.

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Page 239

The New York Times

From New York, U.S., and world news to business, technology, the environment, science, health, travel, the arts, and more, the New York Times is the number-one newspaper site based on traffic, with a print/online audience of 22.4 million. Founded and continuously published since 1851, the New York Times print edition is the largest local metropolitan paper in the United States.

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Page 239

MSNBC.com

NBC has a broadcast channel with a nightly news program, an all-news cable channel, and a website. The website, called MSNBC.com, is owned by both NBC Universal and Microsoft, the software company.

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MSNBC.com

Is MSNBC.com open to hearing from independent videojournalists? “Absolutely,” says MSNBC.com senior multimedia producer, Meredith Birkett. “My job here is basically to do exactly that. To understand who’s doing what work out there, and the quality of their work. We’re happy to hear from videojournalists from a still, TV, or film background.” In fact, the website has a special section where professionals can submit project and assignment ideas along with videos.

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Page 240

The Soldier

Produced by independent videojournalists Bob Sacha and Brian Sokol

An American contemplates the 4,000 soldiers killed in Iraq. One family reflects on the life and lost legacy of their loved one.

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Page 240

The Olympian

Kathy Strauss was an occasional freelance photographer for the Olympia, Washington– based Olympian when she took several multimedia immersion courses. She approached the news outlet’s editors bout doing unpaid videos for its website to gain more experience, including one story about nine-year-old fiddler Maggie Neatherlin.

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Fiddle Phenom Maggie Neatherlin

Produced by Kathy Strauss

Meet nine-year old Maggie Neatherlin of Olympia, Washington, lead fiddle player for the Grizzle Grazzle Tune Snugglers.

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Page 240

Time

Time magazine, established in 1923, excels at summarizing the news of the week. Time.com, its website, offers reliable, up-to-the-minute reporting, photography, video, and in-depth analysis on the people, places and issues currently in the news. From the economy, technology, and health care to international features, entertainment, and sports, it’s one of the fastest-growing national news sites in the United States, with more than 7 million unique viewers per month.

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Page 241

In Mumbai, Wrestling to Be a Cop

Produced by Jason Motlagh

Young men, many of whom want to be police officers, get in shape by practicing an old form of wrestling popular among India’s lower classes.

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Frontline

Since 1983, FRONTLINE has served as PBS’s flagship public affairs television series and features incisive documentaries. Although segments are produced for the FRONTLINE TV show, they run in their entirety on the website, as well—many as long as an hour.

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The Economy of a Tent City

Produced by Travis Fox

Ten weeks after the earthquake, the temporary settlements where Haitians congregated developed into rich, complex communities.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera is an international news network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. Initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel with the same name, Al Jazeera has since expanded to include the Web and specialty TV channels in multiple languages that are accessible in several world regions.

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Page 242

Return of the Warlords

Produced by Jason Motlagh and Rick Rowley

What does the return of Afghanistan’s most notorious warlord mean for Afghan democracy?

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The Smithsonian

Smithsonian is a monthly print magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. It features in-depth coverage of history, science, nature, the arts, travel, world culture, and technology. Smithsonian.com expands on magazine content and includes videos, blogs, and a reader forum.

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Page 243

Reviving the Ohlone Language

Video by Laird Harrison

Using archived ethnographic research, Linda Yamane is bringing back the language of the Ohlone, a Northern California tribe of American Indians.

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Page 243

National Geographic

National Geographic has inspired people to care about the planet since 1888. The magazine contains articles about geography, popular science, world history, culture, current events, and photography of places and things all over the world and the universe.

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Page 244

American Association of Retired Persons

Among those who have hired outside videojournalists is the gargantuan 40-million member American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). The good news for videojournalists is that AARP.org represents a viable freelance market.

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Page 244

Marathon Woman

Kat Keene Hogue, videojournalist and editor; Nicole Shea, multimedia producer, AARP

Margaret Hagerty, who—at 64 years old— traded smoking for running. She ran a marathon within a year and is a Guinness World Record holder as the oldest person to run a marathon on all seven continents.

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American Association of Retired Persons

“Because our audience (and thus our subject matter) is defined by age rather than geography, and because we are a multimedia staff of two, we use freelance videojournalists for almost all of our feature pieces,” Shea wrote for the April 2009 issue of the Digital Journalist. “This has enables us to work with some of the best people in this emerging field. It also challenges us to constantly recruit talented new freelancers, and it forces us to be disciplined in communicating the unique parameters of creating features for a specialized organization such as ours.”

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American Association of Retired Persons

Shea also tries to introduce issues central to members through compelling characters and stories. “What Will Happen to Andy?” presents an increasingly common issue faced by older parents of adult children with special needs: how do these parents plan for their children, both financially and in terms of lifestyle, when they themselves are gone? To provide useful information rather than simply raising questions, Shea also assigned a companion piece on planning for the future needs of adult children with special needs, which featured resources and advice.

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VJ Movement

UK videojournalist Adam Westbrook often contributes pitches to VJ Movement, a Hollandbased website. Each Sunday, the site invites its international viewers to vote on proposals for videojournalism projects. VJ Movement pays to have those projects produced and published on the VJ Movement website. The VJ Movement site is one example of “crowd sourcing” to pay for multimedia and videojournalism. See “Raise Funds on the Internet,” to come.

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Page 245

Contesting an Election

By Adam Westbrook, VJMovement.com

John Hirst works for prisoners’ rights. Adam Westbrook’s story about him appeared on VJ Movement and sold as a radio and print piece.

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Institutions, Foundations, and Other Organizations

Mediastorm

“These organizations have a mission and they have money to fund important work,” says Storm, noting that Soros spent a million dollars sending 31 teams into the field to cover Hurricane Katrina. MediaStorm developed and published the teams’ material for its site.

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Page 245

Right to Relief: Palliative Care in India

Photography and video by Brent Foster for Human Rights Watch

Doctors in India say it’s time for the Indian government to integrate palliative care into routine health care.

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Page 246

Waiting Topless

By Briget Ganske, Salt Institute for Documentary Studies

When the Grand View Topless Coffee shop in Vassalboro, Maine, opened in February 2009, Lisa Beaudreau and Star Cunningham both found jobs there. “Yes, I am a topless waitress, but I’m just a regular normal person in society,” Cunningham says.

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Page 247

India’s Fast Lane to the Future

Photo by Ed Kashi

The Golden Quadrilateral Highway project is one of India’s largest and most ambitious infrastructureprojects ever. In fact, it’s a metaphor for how India is entering the 21st century and modernizing itself to be a dominant player in the global economy.

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Page 248

The Real Slum of Slumdog Millionaire

Photo by Brent Foster

Dharavi in Mumbai India is Asia’s largest slum and the location for the movie Slumdog Millionaire.

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Page 249

Going Back to School

By Julie Winokur

“It was a logical career move,” Winokur wrote in a piece for the Digital Journalist. “In the age of multimedia, photographers who can shoot video have a distinct advantage. I fully supported Ed’s decision to invest the time and money into Platypus.” But when Kashi proceeded to outfit himself with the best equipment to shift his career, the price tag was nearly $10,000; Winokur blanched at the cost and tried to dissuade him.

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Aging in America

Photo by Ed Kashi

The Senior Olympics in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. In 15 years, the Senior Olympics has grown from a modest experiment to a national phenomenon drawing more than 12,000 athletes in dozens of events.

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The Sandwich Generation

Photo by Ed Kashi

Herbert Winokur, 83, suffers from dementia and has recently moved into his daughter’s house in Montclair, New Jersey. Isabel Kashi (foreground), with Herb Winokur and Julie Winokur (standing), in their kitchen.

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Page 251

Build It (And They Will Come)

Photo by Tim Laman

A male bowerbird builds decorated homes to attract females.

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Page 252

Raise Funds on the Internet

Emphas.is

Emphas.is, Kickstart.com, and Indiegogo.com are sites that provide platforms for individuals to seek funds for their projects.

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Raise Funds on the Internet

Kickstart.com

See Above

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Raise Funds on the Internet

Indiego.com

See Above

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Starting Out

Transom.org

How to break into the market? For journalism students and beginning journalists, that may mean using Transom, CNN’s iReport and other citizen journalism/semi-self-publishing vehicles. You might contribute to these websites even if they don’t pay. Getting published by your school or local media is critical to those that want a foot up on the career ladder. Try to persuade your school or hometown newspaper to put your multimedia and video stories online. Once they are up, you can link to them from your social media accounts like Facebook and LinkedIn. Future employers will be impressed that you have brought your work to the public. Transom.org, ireport.cnn.com, and altnewsreport are sites you want to check out.

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Starting Out

CNN

See Above

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Starting Out

Alternative News Report

See Above

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  Posted by http://2017.japanform.com on Sunday, September 24, 2017 at 17:54 PST
http://2017.japanform.com... 華やかな鈴木慶江さんを囲み、お誘いくださった美智子さんと仲良しの裏地桂子さん、ダンディな紳士のエスコートで。...